Preliminary study on in vitro shoot culture of Hibiscus coddii subsp. barnardii, an indigenous South African flowering plant

Helena Jacoba Du Plessis, Roumiana Vassileva Nikolova, Riana Kleynhans, Bronwyn Anne Egan

Abstract


In vivo and in vitro grown plants of Hibiscus coddii subsp. barnardii were used as explant source for establishment of in vitro cultures. Nodal shoot explants derived from in vivo grown plants, both naturally and under controlled environmental conditions, showed high sensitivity to the surface disinfection treatment and poor survival in in vitro culture. In vitro grown seedlings proved successful as aseptic source of apical and basal shoot explants to establish contamination-free in vitro cultures. Sprouting of axillary buds was observed on 90% of apical shoot explants after four weeks of culture on full strength, plant growth regulator (PGR)-free Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. However, further proliferation of short shoots, limited to the bud sprout at the explant base, occurred on only 50% of these explants. In contrast, all basal shoot explants attained 3-5 single primary axillary shoots (30-40 mm in length) while a clump of short (5-10 mm) shoots also formed at the base in 60% of these explants. In both explant types, addition of 0.25-1 mg L-1 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) to the MS medium resulted in a low frequency (10%-60%) of explants with short shoots (5-10 mm) that showed no further elongation. Moreover, explants cultured in the presence of BAP showed a high frequency of callus formation (up to 90%) and low survival (20%-60%). A lower frequency of callus formation (30%-40%) and higher survival (90%-100%) of both explant types occurred on BAP-free medium. Further subculturing of primary and secondary axillary shoots onto fresh MS medium (with and without BAP) did not improve shoot multiplication. Regenerated plantlets from PGR-free MS medium were successfully acclimatized and hardened-off.

Keywords


Hibiscus coddii subsp. barnardii; explant source; in vitro seedlings; surface disinfection; tissue culture; 6-Benzylaminopurine

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/2447-536X.v27i3.2353

ISSN: 2447-536X

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