Heterosis and genetic diversity in the crossings of gladiolus cultivars Amsterdam and White Prosperity

Mohammad Hossein Azimi

Abstract


Gladiolus is one of the most important and popular cut-flower bulbous in Iran. The aim of this research was to produce new, high-quality hybrids through hybridization. We generated two promising hybrids (OPRC16 and OPRC57) combination from the varieties “Amsterdam” and “White Prosperity”. The Research was conducted in Ornamental Plants Research Center in Mahallat from 2014 to 2018. Values of Hm for traits were defined as the difference between the mid-F1 value and the mid-parent value, Mean Mid-parent Heterosis (MPH) or (Hmp) and High Parent Heterosis (HPH) or (Hsp). The results showed that the morphological analysis revealed the heredity and variation in the promising hybrids. The results for the hybrid OPRC16 showed that the Hm and Hmp values were negative for peduncle length but positive for other traits. The Hsp value was observed to be negative for the traits of peduncle length, leaf width, stem diameter, and cormels diameter, but it was positive for other traits. According to the results for the hybrid OPRC57, the Hm and Hmp values were negative for plant height, floret number, peduncle length, floret diameter, stem diameter, spike length, cormles weight, and cormlet diameter and negative for other traits. Peduncle length was positive in other traits. The Hmp value was negative for peduncle length, but positive for other traits. The Hsp value was recorded to be positive for leaf length, bud diameter, vase life, cormlet number, and cormles yield but negative for other traits. All in all, OPRC57 showed a negative heterosis in most traits. Based on the results, when ‘Amsterdam’ is used as the maternal plant in crosses, it has more positive heterosis effects than when it is used as the paternal parent. These results indicate that major of traits in the phenotypic and genetic diversity coefficient was very low, indicating that they had less environmental effects, since the genotypes were cultivated under similar and controlled conditions.


Keywords


morphological, heterosis, hybridization, diversity.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/2447-536X.v26i2.2095

ISSN: 2447-536X

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