Morphophysiological responses of Billbergia zebrina Lindl. (Bromeliaceae) in function of types and concentrations of carbohydrates during conventional in vitro culture

Elizangela Rodrigues Santos, João Paulo Rodrigues Martins, Luiz Carlos de Almeida Rodrigues, Andreia Barcelos Passos Lima Gontijo, Antelmo Ralph Falqueto

Abstract


When propagated in vitro, explants receive all the nutrients needed for their growth, including carbohydrates, from the culture medium. However, it is not well understood how the type and concentration of carbohydrates can affect the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus (particularly photosystem II) of these plants. The aim was to assess the morphophysiological responses of Billbergia zebrina plants in function of sources and concentrations of carbohydrates during in vitro culture. Side shoots of plants previously established in vitro were individualized and transferred to a culture medium containing fructose, glucose or sucrose in four concentrations (0, 15, 30 or 45 g L-1). After growth for 55 days, the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient, leaf anatomy and growth were analyzed. The concentration and type of carbohydrate employed during in vitro culture did not decrease the photosynthetic apparatus performance. However, concentrations above 30 g L-1 led to anatomical modifications, revealing some degree of stress suffered by the plants. When grown in concentrations of 15 and 30 g L-1, irrespective of the carbohydrate used, the plants presented greater stomatal density. The supplementation of the culture medium with monosaccharides caused alterations in the development of the xylem vessels, such as increased number and diameter, allowing adjustment to the microenvironmental conditions. The in vitro conditions influenced the photosynthetic and anatomical responses of plants. The concentration interval from 15 to 30 g L-1 sucrose had a better effect by not causing large changes in the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus and anatomy of plants.


Keywords


bromeliad; chlorophyll a fluorescence; plant anatomy; plant physiology; plant tissue culture.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/2447-536X.v26i1.2092

ISSN: 2447-536X

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